The jurisdictional reach of the federal 1972 Clean Water Act, which hinges on the definition of “navigable waters” or the “waters of the United States,” has been the subject of hot debate, consternation and interpretation – with plenty of litigation, regulation, agency interpretative guidance, inter-agency memorandum of agreements, more litigation, new regulations, supplemental agency guidance and memoranda, even injunctions, and so on – for decades.

The last major action in this saga was the Obama administration’s 2015 Clean Water Rule, which broadened the Act’s jurisdiction to water bodies not previously regulated, such as smaller streams and tributaries, dry washes or intermittent streams, and certain ditches or gravel pits.  Farmers, especially in the West (where a large majority of surface water flows intermittently), developers, and the mining industry were most affected by the expansion.

One of President Trump’s first actions in office was a February 2017 executive order directing the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Army Corps of Engineers (the two agencies share regulatory authority under the Act) to rescind and replace the Obama Rule.  Today, the two agencies released the proposed replacement rule.  As expected, it proposes a significantly more limited definition of “waters of the United States.”

Early estimates are saying that millions of acres of wetlands and thousands of miles of streams will no longer be subject to federal regulation, but there is a long road ahead before the rule becomes law.  First, the proposed rule is subject to a 60 day public comment period.  Second is the litigation, which is a practically guaranteed – environmental groups have made their opposition clear.  And the saga continues…



Back in 2009, we reported here that the United States EPA was imposing significant penalties on parties for violating the Clean Water Act’s stormwater permitting requirements for construction projects.  The enforcement of these violations continues with a new penalty settlement announced by EPA against Toll Brothers, Inc. on June 20, 2012.

In the settlement, Toll Brothers agreed to pay a penalty of $741,000 stemming from alleged stormwater violations at 370 sites in 23 states, including New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Florida and Texas.  In additional to paying the civil penalty, Toll Brothers is required to implement a comprehensive compliance plan to ensure it meets its obligations under the stormwater permitting requirements for construction activities.

It is easy for stormwater compliance issues to get pushed-aside amidst all of the other issues facing developers.  However, this EPA settlement is another reminder that there can be serious consequences for not paying close attention to those stormwater requirements.  As we’ve stated before, developers must ensure that their professional team, including engineers, construction managers and attorneys, are paying close attention to compliance with stormwater permitting requirements to avoid such costly mistakes.

In June 2008, the United States Environmental Protection Agency announced a $4.3 million dollar settlement against four national residential real estate development companies. The government alleged that those companies violated the federal Clean Water Act (“CWA”) requirements addressing the discharge of stormwater (i.e., rainwater/snow melt runoff) from construction sites. Under the CWA, a permit and a stormwater management plan are required for the discharge of stormwater from a construction site. The EPA alleged that the companies had either not obtained a permit before commencing their construction activities or failed to abide by the terms of permits they had obtained. This enforcement action follows several other recent high profile stormwater permit enforcement actions undertaken over the past several years that resulted in $4.4 million dollars in penalties against two national box retail stores.

The CWA generally requires that a developer obtain a stormwater discharge permit before starting construction activities at a property. It allows states to assume the role of the permitting authority for stormwater permits. Delaware, New Jersey, New York and Maryland have been delegated such permitting authority from the EPA. As such, the state environmental agency within a delegated state issues permits for stormwater discharges under the CWA. EPA retains oversight authority over the state stormwater permitting programs – that is why the recent enforcement actions were brought by the EPA.

In New Jersey, a construction project which will disturb more than one acre of land requires a stormwater discharge permit. The state Department of Environmental Protection (“DEP”) has established a general stormwater discharge permit for construction activities, through which the DEP pre-determined that any construction projects meeting the criteria for the general permit will be covered by the general permit. (There are also general stormwater permits for industrial facilities, concrete manufacturers and other business categories, which permits address stormwater runoff from the operation of covered facilities.) To obtain coverage under the construction general permit, the developer must submit a Request for Authorization to the local Soil Conservation District for their approval. This is unlike an individual discharge permit, which requires a detailed state engineering review.

Obtaining the general stormwater permit for construction activities is, however, only the first step towards compliance with the CWA’s stormwater requirements. Once the permit is in place, the permit holder must comply with the terms of that permit. Failing to abide by the terms of the permit is also a violation of law which exposes the developer significant penalties. The most important component of the general stormwater construction permit is the development and certification of a Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan 

The SWPPP consists of a soil erosion and sediment control element and a construction site waste control component. The soil erosion and sediment control element is governed by a soil erosion and sediment control plan and includes controls such as silt fences to minimize soil runoff. The construction site waste control element contains requirements which address materials management to prevent or reduce waste and waste handling, which in turn reduces the potential for such waste materials to flow off-site with stormwater. Examples of construction site waste include waste building material and rubble, chemical waste, litter, sanitary sewage, contaminated soils and concrete truck washout.

By obtaining a permit for stormwater discharges at construction sites, and complying with the terms of the SWPPP, a developer will avoid a potentially costly enforcement action by the state or the EPA. The EPA has sent a very strong signal to the regulated community that it takes stormwater discharges and compliance with the CWA very seriously. A developer must ensure that its professional team, including engineers, construction managers and attorneys, are paying close attention to stormwater permitting requirements to avoid such costly mistakes.